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Sonic’s World, or simply The World, is the planet on which Sonic the Hedgehog and his friends live. It’s constantly under threat from Dr. Eggman, who intends to conquer the world, making the whole thing a part of the Eggman Empire.
The inhabitents of this world have primarily been shown to be anthropomorphic animals (that is, animals with humanoid appearances), though human beings may also live there, with Dr. Eggman being the only known example.
The planet has been terrorised by the Eggman Empire for quite some time. For as long as that has been the case, Sonic the Hedgehog, the fastest thing alive, has been around to combat the doctor at every turn, thwarting any world-conquering plan that comes his way.
Sonic and his closest friends have had numerous adventures in their ongoing battle, which includes, but is certainly not limited to the following:
Afterwards, Eggman used the Space Colony ARK to blow up the moon. His usage of the ARK would ultimately put the world in danger of being destroyed, forcing the doctor to team up with the heroes to prevent that from happening. (StH: #5, #6)
Main political factions
Cities & Territories
Areas & Zones
- Angel Island (floating)
- Unnamed Town (Sonic the Hedgehog Issue 1)
- Unnamed Town (Sonic the Hedgehog Issue 2)
- Unnamed Town (Sonic the Hedgehog Issue 3)
- Unnamed Town (Sonic the Hedgehog Issue 4)
- Unnamed Town (Sonic the Hedgehog Issue 5)
One World or Two?
Various incarnations of Sonic’s world have existed across different media, many with different interpretations of their relation to the "real world". The version of the world depicted in the IDW continuity bares a closer resemblance to the world as depicted in the video games.
That being said, the exact nature of Sonic’s world in the games has always been a subject of debate, with confusion derived from the drastic changes in setting between games: various games appear to be set on a world that is more in tune with nature, with inhabitents mostly consisting of anthropomorphic animals like Sonic himself, with Eggman being the only human to appear. Several other games, on the other hand, are set in a world vastly similar to the real world, with big cities inhabited by large numbers of humans, with the only anthropomorphic animals appearing being the main characters.
Many fans believe that the contrasting settings are merely different areas of the same planet, with certain areas being inhabited by more humans than anthros, and vice versa, with parts of the planet colonised while others remain rural. This interpretation appears to have inspired how the world was depicted in the post-Super Genesis Wave timeline of the Archie Comics series.
Sonic Team producer, Takeshi Iizuka, however, has stated in interviews that he believes the settings to be two different worlds-one inhabited by humans, and one inhabited by anthros. It’s unclear whether Iizuka-San meant the worlds are literally two different planets with an unspecified connection (a concept previously used in the anime series Sonic X), or two different societies existing on the same world (like the above fan theory). Sonic PR manager Aaron Webber has stated that he believes the former explination to be the case (to his understanding), although former SEGA Europe community manager Kevin Eva disagrees with the former. 
Several pieces of evidence across various Sonic games both support and debunk the "two planets" theory. Sonic Unleashed, a game in which Sonic travels to various places across the planet, features a full world map, with several locations that draw heavy inspiration from the real life planet Earth, with all of the inhabitants being humans, (excluding the main characters themselves). Later in Sonic Forces, a different world map is shown: this one contains a completely different geography to the Unleashed map, with all locations visited being the more rural locations most associated with the anthropomorphic characters, who are also depicted as being the main inhabitants this time around. This would indeed imply that the settings are two different planets.
On the other hand, several maps (or small sections of maps) have appeared in other Sonic games that appear inconsistant with the aformentioned two: Sonic Adventure 2 (a game with an Earth-like setting, with mainly human inhabitants) has its own in-game map of all key locations, all of which do not appear to match up with anything on the Unleashed map. Additionally, some games have shown maps that are either directly or loosely based on the real life planet Earth (a direct recreation appears in Shadow the Hedgehog, while an almost identical one appears in Sonic Riders).
Furthermore, the game Sonic Chronicles: The Dark Brotherhood is the only game thus far that attempts to merge the two settings, with an overworld that features such Sonic-oriented locations as Green Hill Zone alongside human locations like Station Square. This games canonocity is questionable, however.
IDW Sonic writer Ian Flynn has confirmed that the "two worlds" concept is the canon one for this series, although, like with Iizuka-San’s claim, it’s unclear what the exact meaning is.
Until canon evidence to the contrary appears, IDW Sonic Hub shall consider the two settings to be a single planet.